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Surjo Soekadar


    Soekadar.jpgSurjo R. Soekadar, MD
    University Hospital of Tübingen
    Head, Applied Neurotechnology Lab
    Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology /
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
    Calwerstr. 14; D-72076 Tübingen; Germany
    Tel.: +49-7071-29 82625



Principal Investigator in

  • Bernstein Fokus Neurotechnologie Freiburg-Tübingen „Motor Restoration With Brain-Machine Interface Systems In Chronic Stroke“ (Hybrid Brain - C1) BMBF


Research Interests

  • Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs)
  • Neuroplasticity & Neurorestoration
  • Brain Stimulation
  • Non-Linear Dynamics of Brain Activity


Other Scientific Activities

  • Executive Chair, 2017 Real-time Functional Imaging and Neurofeedback (rtFIN) Conference, Nara, Japan”
  • Guest-Editor of NeuroImage
  • General Chair of the 2015 International Clinical BMI Conference, Tokyo, Japan
  • Co-Chair of the 2014 International Clinical BMI Conference, Houston, USA
  • Co-organizer of the Tübingen Neurotech 2014 (First International Symposium on Current Topics 
in Neurotechnology - 
From Basic Research to Medical Applications)
  • Associate Guest-Editor Frontiers of Cellular Neuroscience & Review Editor of Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics
  • Guest-Editor of Advances in Human-Computer Interaction (HPG)
  • Occasional Reviewer for Nature Communications, Nature Scientific Reports, Biological Psychiatry, NeuroImage, Human Brain Mapping, Clinical Neurophysiology, Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Biological Cybernetics,Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, Frontiers in Neuroscience, Neuroscience Research, Cognitive Processing, Journal of Neural Engineering, Brain, Robotics and Autonomous System
  • Member of The New York Academy of Sciences, Society of German Scientists and Physicians (GDNÄ), Society of Neuroscience, Human Brain Mapping, Society of the Neural Control of Movement & Marburger Bund



Academic Background / Research Positions

  • Since 2012: Head, Applied Neurotechnology Lab, University Hospital of Tübingen
  • 2015 - 2016: Resident physician at the Department of General Neurology (Ulf Ziemann), University Hospital of Tübingen
  • 2011 - 2012: Resident physician at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (Andreas J. Fallgatter), University Hospital of Tübingen
  • 2008 - 2011: Visiting Fellow, Stroke Neurorehabilitation Clinic (Leonardo G. Cohen), Medical Neurology Branch, HCPS, NINDS, National Institutes of Health (NIH), USA
  • 2005 - 2011: Resident physician at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (Gerd Buchkremer), University Hospital of Tübingen
  • 2005: Medical approbation at the Medical Faculty, University of Heidelberg, Germany
  • 2004: Graduate studies at the University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA
  • 2000 - 2005: Studies of Medicine at the Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Germany
  • 1999 - 2000: Research assistant on “Neuromodulation of retinal ribbon synapses” at the Dept. of Neuroanatomy (Lutz Vollrath), Mainz, Germany
  • 2000: Baccalaureate at the Medical Faculty, University of Mainz, Germany



  • Soekadar, S.R., Herring, J.D., McGonigle, D. Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) and NeuroImaging: the state-of-the-art, new insights and prospects in basic and clinical neuroscience. Neuroimage. 2016;140:1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.08.020.
  • Ushiba, J., Soekadar, S.R. Brain-machine interfaces for rehabilitation of poststroke hemiplegia. Prog Brain Res. 2016;228:163-83. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2016.04.020. Epub 2016 Jun 29.
  • Witkowski, M., Cossio, E.G., Chander, B.S., Braun, C., Birbaumer, N., Robinson, S.E., Soekadar, S.R. Mapping entrained brain oscillations during transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). Neuroimage. 2016;140:89-98. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.10.024.
  • Garcia-Cossio, E., Witkowski, M., Robinson, S.E., Cohen, L.G., Birbaumer, N., Soekadar, S.R. Simultaneous transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG): assessing the impact of tDCS on slow cortical magnetic fields. Neuroimage. 2016;140:33-40. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.09.068.
  • Liew, S.-L., Rana, M., Cornelsen, S., Fortunato de Barros Filho, M., Birbaumer, N., Sitaram, R., Cohen, L.G., Soekadar, S.R. Improving Motor Corticothalamic Communication After Stroke Using Real-Time fMRI Connectivity-Based Neurofeedback. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2016;30(7):671-5. doi: 10.1177/1545968315619699.
  • Chander, B.S., Witkowski, M., Braun, C., Robinson, S.E., Born, J., Cohen, L.G., Birbaumer, N., Soekadar, S.R. tACS phase locking of frontal midline theta oscillations disrupts working memory performance. Front Cell Neurosci. 2016; 10:120. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2016.00120.
  • Deecke, L., Soekadar, S.R. Beyond the point of no return: Last-minute changes in human motor performance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2016; 10.1073/ pnas.1604257113.
  • Soekadar, S.R., Witkowski, M., Vitiello, N., Birbaumer, N. An EEG/EOG-based hybrid brain-neural computer interaction (BNCI) system to control an exoskeleton for the paralyzed hand. Biomed Tech. (Berl.) 2015;60:199-205.
  • Soekadar, S.R., Witkowski, M., Birbaumer, N., Cohen, L.G. Enhancing hebbian learning to control brain oscillatory activity. Cereb Cortex 2015;25:2409-2415; doi:10.1093/cercor/bhu043.
  • Soekadar, S.R., Birbaumer, N., Slutzky, M.W., Cohen, L.G. Brain-Machine Interfaces In Neurorehabilitation of Stroke. Neurobiol Dis. 2015;83:172-179; doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2014.11.025.
  • Laske, Ch., Sohrabi, H.R., Frost, S.M., López-de-Ipiña, K., Garrard, P., Buscema, M., Dauwels, J., Soekadar, S.R., Mueller, S., Linnemann, Ch., Bridenbaugh, S., Kanagasingam, Y., Martins, R.N., O'Bryant, S.E. Innovative diagnostic tools for early detection of Alzheimer´s disease. Alzheimers & Dementia 2015;11:561-578; doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2014.06.004.
  • Witkowski, M., Cortese, M., Cempini, M., Mellinger, J., Vitiello, N., Soekadar, S.R. Enhancing brain-machine interface (BMI) control of a hand exoskeleton using electrooculography (EOG). J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2014;11(1):165; doi:10.1186/1743-0003-11-165.
  • Cortese, M., Cempini, M., de Almeida Ribeiro, P.R., Soekadar, S.R., Carrozza, M.C., Vitiello, N.A. Mechatronic System for Robot-Mediated Hand Telerehabilitation. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics 2014;20(4):1753-1764; doi:10.1109/TMECH.2014.2353298
  • Soekadar, S.R., Witkowski, M., García Cossio, E., Birbaumer, N., Cohen, L.G. Learned EEG-based brain self-regulation of motor-related oscillations during application of transcranial electric brain stimulation: feasibility and limitations. Front Behav Neurosci. 2014;8:93; doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00093.
  • Birbaumer, N., Gallegos-Ayala, G., Wildgruber, M., Silvoni, S., Soekadar, S.R. Direct Brain Control and Communication in Paralysis. Brain Topogr. 2014;27:4-11.
  • Broetz, D., Del Grosso, N.A., Rea, M., Ramos-Murguialday, A., Soekadar, S.R., Birbaumer, N. A new hand assessment instrument for severely affected stroke patients. Neuro Rehabilitation 2014;34:409-427.
  • Soekadar, S.R., Witkowski, M., García Cossio, E., Birbaumer, N., Robinson, S.E., Cohen L.G. In vivo assessment of human brain oscillations during application of transcranial electric currents. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2032;doi:10.1038/ncomms3032.
  • Soekadar, S.R., Born, J., Birbaumer, N., Bensch, M., Halder, S., Ramos Murguialday, A. Gharabaghi, A., Nijboer, F., Schölkopf, B., Martens, S. Fragmentation of slow wave sleep after onset of complete locked-in state. J Clin Sleep Med. 2013;9:951-953. doi:10.5664/jcsm.3002.
  • Ruiz, S., Lee, S., Soekadar, S.R., Caria, A., Veit, R., Kircher, T., Birbaumer, N., Sitaram, R. Acquired self-control of insula cortex modulates emotion recognition and brain network connectivity in schizophrenia. Hum Brain Mapp. 2013;34,1:200-212.
  • Ramos Murguialday, A., Broetz, D., Rea, M., Läer, L., Yilmaz, O., Brasil, F.L., Liberati, G.,
    Curado, M.R., García Cossio, E., Vyziotis, A., Cho, W., Agostini, M., Soares, E., Soekadar, S.R., Caria, A., Cohen, L.G., Birbaumer, N. Brain-machine interface in chronic stroke rehabilitation: a controlled study. Ann Neurol. 2013; doi:10.1002/ana.23879.
  • Ribeiro, P., Brasil, F., Witkowski, M., Shiman, F., Cipriani, C., Vitiello, N., Soekadar, S.R. Controlling assistive machines in paralysis using brain waves and other biosignals. Advances in Human Computer Interaction 2013;369425; doi:10.1155/2013/369425.
  • Rilk, A.J., Soekadar, S.R., Sauseng, P., Plewnia, C. Alpha coherence predicts accuracy during a visuomotor tracking task. Neuropsychologia 2011;49:3704-3709.
  • Soekadar, S.R., Witkowski, M., Mellinger, J., Ramos Murguialday, A., Birbaumer, N., Cohen, L.G. ERD-based online brain-machine interfaces (BMI) in the context of neurorehabilitation: optimizing BMI learning and performance. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2011;19:542-549.
  • Broetz, D., Braun, C., Weber, C., Soekadar, S.R., Caria, A., Birbaumer, N. Combination of brain-computer interface training and goal-directed physical therapy in chronic stroke: a case report. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2010;24:674-679.
  • Ruiz, S.M., Sitaram, R., Lee, S., Soekadar S.R., Birbaumer, N. Learning to self-regulate insula cortex modulates emotion recognition and neural connectivity in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 2010;117:178.
  • Soekadar, S.R., Arfeller, C., Rilk, A., Plontke, S.K., Plewnia, C. Theta burst stimulation in the treatment of incapacitating tinnitus accompanied by severe depression. CNS Spectr. 2009;14:208-211.
  • Buch, E., Weber, C., Cohen, L.G., Braun, C., Dimyan, M.A., Ard, T., Mellinger, J., Caria, A., Soekadar, S.R., Fourkas, A., Birbaumer, N. Think to move: a neuromagnetic brain-computer interface (BCI) system for chronic stroke. Stroke 2008;39:910-917.
  • Plewnia, C., Rilk, A. J., Soekadar, S.R., Arfeller, C., Huber, H.S., Sauseng, P., Hummel, F., Gerloff, C. Enhancement of long-range EEG coherence by synchronous bifocal transcranial magnetic stimulation. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:1577-1583.
  • Broetz, D., Soekadar, S.R., Birbaumer, N.A request for clarifications to help clinicians. Comment on "A four-week, task-specific neuroprosthesis program ..." Dunning K, et al. Phys. Ther. 2008;88:397-405.
  • Ruiz, S., Sitaram, R., Várkuti, B., Lee, S., Caria, A., Plewnia, C., Soekadar, S.R., Veit, R., Singh, V., Birbaumer, N. Learned control of insular activity using fMRI brain-computer interface in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 2008;102:92.
  • Laske, C., Stransky, E., Leyhe, T., Eschweiler, G.W., Maetzler, W., Wittorf, A., Soekadar, S.R., Richartz, E., Koehler, N., Bartels, M., Buchkremer, G., Schott, K. BDNF serum and CSF concentrations in Alzheimer's disease, normal pressure hydrocephalus and healthy controls. J Psychiatr Res. 2007;41:387-394.
  • Laske, C., Soekadar, S.R., Laszlo, R., Plewnia, C. Brugada syndrome in a patient treated with lithium. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1440-1441.
  • Marano, C.M., Phatak, P., Vemulapalli, U.R., Sasan, A., Nalbandyan, M.R., Ramanujam, S., Soekadar, S.R., Demosthenous, M., Regenold, W.T. Increased plasma concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor with electroconvulsive therapy: a pilot study in patients with major depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68:512-517.

Book Chapters

  • Soekadar, S., Silvoni, S., Cohen, L. & Birbaumer, N. Brain–Machine Interfaces in Stroke Neurorehabilitation, in Clinical Systems Neuroscience (Kansaku, K., Cohen, L. G. & Birbaumer, N.) 3–14 (Springer Japan, 2015). doi:10.1007/978-4-431-55037-2_1
  • Soekadar, S., Birbaumer, N. Brain–Machine Interfaces for Communication in Complete Paralysis: Ethical Implications and Challenges, in Handbook of Neuroethics (Clausen, J. & Levy, N.) 705–724 (Springer Netherlands, 2015). doi:10.1007/978-94-007-4707-4_41
  • Soekadar, S.R., Cohen, L.G., Birbaumer, N. Clinical brain-machine interfaces, in Plasticity of cognition in neurologic disorders (Tracy, J., Hampstead, B., Sathian, K.) 347-362 (Oxford University Press, New York. 2015). doi:10.1093/med/9780199965243.003.0015
  • Soekadar, S.R., Birbaumer, N. Improving the efficacy of ipsilesional brain-computer interface training in neurorehabilitation of chronic stroke, in Brain-Computer-Interface Research, Biosystems & Biorobotics, Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 2014;6:75-84.
  • Meyer, T., Peters, J., Zander, T.O., Broetz, D., Soekadar, S.R., Schoelkopf, B., Grosse-Wentrup, M. Investigating the neural basis for stroke rehabilitation by brain-computer interfaces, in Converging Clinical and Engineering Research on Neurorehabilitation (Pons, J. L., Torricelli, D. & Pajaro, M.), Biosystems & Biorobotics Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 2013;1:617-621.
  • Chiri, A., Cortese, M., Ribeiro de Almeida, P.R., Cempini, M., Vitiello, N., Soekadar, S.R., Carrozza, M.C. A telerehabilitation system for hand functional training, in Converging Clinical and Engineering Research on Neurorehabilitation (Pons, J.L, Torricelli, D. & Pajaro, M.), Biosystems & Biorobotics, Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 2013;1:1019-1023.
  • Chiri, A., Cortese, M., Ribeiro, P., Cempini, M., Vitiello, N., Soekadar, S.R., Carrozza, M.C. A telerehabilitation system for hand functional training, in Converging Clinical and Engineering Research on Neurorehabilitation (Pons, J.L, Torricelli, D. & Pajaro, M.), Biosystems & Biorobotics, Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 2012;1:1019-1023.
  • Soekadar, S.R., Birbaumer, N., Cohen, L.G. Brain-computer-interfaces in the rehabilitation of stroke and neurotrauma, in Systems Neuroscience and Rehabilitation (Kansaku K. & Cohen, L.G.), Springer Tokyo, ISBN 978-4-431-53998-8. 2011;3-18.
  • Soekadar, S.R., Caria, A., Ramos Murguialday, A., Birbaumer, N. Rehabilitation after stroke using brain-computer-interfaces and neurostimulation, in Somatosensory Cortex: Roles, Interventions and Traumas (Columbus, F.H.), Nova Science Publ. New York, ISBN 978-1-60741-876-4. 2009.
  • Soekadar, S.R., Haagen, K., Birbaumer, N. Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI): Restoration of movement and thought from neuroelectric and metabolic brain activity, in Intelligent Computing Everywhere (Schuster, A.), Springer London, ISBN 978-1-84628-942-2. 2007;229-252. 


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